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iStock/kckate16(NEW YORK) -- Does it matter if your twin is a male or a female? Maybe.

Researchers from the Norwegian School of Economics, Northwestern University and Emory University looked at what happens if a female shares a womb with a male twin.

The results are surprising.

They found that 30 years or more after birth, there were significant educational and social disparities when comparing females with male twins to females with female twins.

Females who shared the womb with a male had higher high school and college dropout rates, were less likely to get married, had fewer children, were less likely to be working and earned less in the workforce.

Researchers used national registries in Norway to study over 13,000 twin births between 1967 and 1978.

Why it matters: Twin births on the rise

The rate of twin births has increased in the U.S., from 18.9 per 1,000 births in 1980 to 33.4 per 1,000 births in 2016, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Based on data from Florida gathered between 1992 and 2002, the researchers estimate that in the U.S., the percentage newborn females with a male twin rose from 0.6 percent of total births in 1971 to 1.1 percent in 2010.

One possible explanation: It happens in the womb

Researchers believe their findings for female twins with a male counterpart are due to effects while in the womb (prenatal), rather than the social effects of growing up with a brother (postnatal).

In order to control for postnatal environmental effects, researchers looked at group of female twins whose brothers died during their first year of life.

“The biggest confounder in prior studies is that they don’t look at the postnatal exposure of growing up with a brother,” says Dr. Krzysztof Karbownik, one of the researchers and a postdoctoral fellow at Northwestern University's Institute for Policy Research. In fact, he said, prior to their analysis they were “pretty sure [the effects] would be related to postnatal causes.”

The researchers concluded that the likely culprit is elevated testosterone that female twins are exposed to in the womb, though they do not have any testosterone-specific data to prove this.

“Although we can nail down that this is a prenatal versus postnatal effect, the exact channel of this prenatal effect is unclear,” said Dr. Karbownik. He noted that based on prior studies, changes in morphology, physiology or behavior could be the cause of the long-term effects they saw in female twins.

What this means going forward: Don’t “freak out”

“I don’t think people should freak out…we are really trying to make it clear that this is not a paper about in vitro fertilization,” said Dr. Karbownik. “These are population averages…nobody should apply this to their individual fertility decisions.”

It is important to keep in mind that this study only looked at a group of patients in Norway, so we can’t assume the same results for the North American population. It also only examined a few metrics of long-term outcomes -- perhaps female twins with male twin brothers excel in other areas of life that were not studied.

Dr. Karbownik emphasized that “gender norms” is something that is constantly changing and evolving. It could be the case that if we looked at the data 20 years down, we may see no effect at all.

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smartstock/iStock(NEW YORK) -- Aspirin -- is it safe to take?

Cardiologists have recently put out new guidelines recommending that a person’s risk of life-threatening bleeding should be factored into their decision whether or not to start taking aspirin to prevent a first-ever heart attack or stroke.

These guidelines, published in the medical journal Circulation, are in line with recent studies that have raised an issue with the medication.

How aspirin works

Aspirin is made of salicylic acid. It works by stopping COX-1, a specialized protein in our body that activates a type of cell called a platelet. These are found in our blood and are responsible for making it sticky. When platelets pile up, a clot can form. If the clot forms in the heart, a heart attack can occur; if the clot forms in the brain, a stroke is possible.

By intervening on platelet function, aspirin can potentially prevent a heart attack or stroke -- but the blood can also become less sticky, and a person can become prone to bleeding in general. In certain areas of the body, specifically the gut and brain, bleeding can be deadly. A history of certain medical conditions like kidney failure, liver failure and age makes the risks of bleeding even higher.

Aspirin protects the heart and brain, and should be taken for secondary prevention

Decades of data support the use of aspirin for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, meaning a repeat event like a heart attack or stroke. In people with blockages of blood vessels in the heart and brain, including those with prior heart attacks or stroke, the rate of repeat events drops by 1.5 percent each year aspirin is taken regularly.

Despite the risk of bleeding that still exists, the benefit is so great that aspirin is generally recommended to be taken as a life-long medication.

“It’s an unwavering, workhorse agent for these people,” Dr. Paul Grubel, an interventional cardiologist and research director at the Inova Center in Falls Church, Virginia, told ABC News.

He hopes the updated guidelines, which discuss possible risks to taking aspirin as a primary prevention -- preventing something that hasn’t happened yet -- don’t cause those people with prior heart attacks and strokes to all of a sudden stop their aspirin regime.

“If there’s any confusion that patients have, they should not make changes in this therapy -- or any medical therapy -- without talking to their physician first,” Dr. Grubel said.

The benefit of aspirin for primary prevention is murky

The evidence for taking aspirin is much less compelling when it’s taken as a primary prevention, meaning to prevent a first heart attack or stroke. Its use remains contentious because the bleeding risks more closely match potential benefit.

A large study in 2009, and three studies in 2018 called ARRIVE, ASCEND and ASPREE, showed that rates of significant bleeding related to aspirin were similar or even greater than the rate at which it reduced a first time heart attack or stroke.

The latest guidelines

The new guidelines published by the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association in Circulation suggest that for a select group of people, aspirin taken for primary prevention may be appropriate. This is in line with recommendations put forth by other medical groups.

These new guidelines recommend considering low-dose “baby” aspirin every day, between 75 and 100 milligrams, in people between the ages of 40 and 70 who are at high cardiovascular risk but low bleeding risk, as determined by providers.

Ultimately, starting aspirin is an individual decision that should be made between patients and their care providers, with careful consideration of the risks and benefits. If you have questions about whether or not you should be taking aspirin, you should speak with your healthcare provider first.

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iStock/twinsterphotoDR. AMRIT K. KAMBOJ

(NEW YORK) -- If you’ve recently gone shopping for a new pair of eyeglasses, there’s a chance you may have come across some blue-light-blocking glasses, which seem to be everywhere, from online to brick-and-mortar optical stores.

The reason behind their popularity may be that more people are using digital devices, including cell phones and computers, which emit blue light. In fact, one study found that the average worker spends about 1,700 hours a year in front of a computer screen, and that doesn’t even include the time they spend looking at other screens when they’re not at work.

“Nine out of 10 people use digital devices for two or more hours each day,” Dr. Mark Jacquot, an optometrist and vice president of Vision Care Operations for LensCrafters, told ABC News.

Whether the glasses work, however, is unclear — expert opinions vary. Dr. Sunir J. Garg, a clinical spokesperson for the American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) and ophthalmologist at Wills Eye Hospital in Philadelphia, says that there hasn’t been much research on their effectiveness and with them being so popular now, “you wonder where they came from.”

So, here is what you should know about blue-light-blocking glasses.

Several retailers offer blue-light-blocking glasses.

Many companies that sell eyeglasses, including Warby Parker, Eyebuydirect and LensCrafters, offer different options for blue-light-blocking glasses. LensCrafters offers two different options: one called Blue IQ lenses, which block about 52 percent of blue light, and another called Blue IQ Clear lenses, which block about 20 percent of blue light.

Jacquot said that the Blue IQ lenses offer three times more protection against blue light compared to standard anti-reflective coated lenses, which only block 9 to 17 percent of blue light.

Blue light has been around for a while and electronic devices are not the only source

Computers and cell phones are not the only sources of blue light in our everyday lives. The largest source of blue light is actually sunlight. Blue light exposure from screens is much less than that from sunlight.

“People have been exposed to blue light for as long as they have been around,” Garg said. “The eye has done a good job of filtering this over time through evolution.”

Blue light may be connected to sleep issues.

While the recommended amount of sleep for adults is seven to nine hours per night, one in three adults does not get enough sleep. Electronic devices may share part of the blame for poor sleep habits.

Blue light from screens can delay the release of melatonin, which is the main sleep-promoting hormone. It can also increase alertness and push back the body’s internal clock to a later schedule. Blue light is not always necessarily bad — some amount of blue light during the day helps keep us awake — but overexposure at night can disrupt sleep.

Jacquot said that blue-light-blocking glasses can help with sleep, and since they don’t block 100 percent of blue light, they shouldn’t cause you to feel sleepy during the day. Habits that can help promote sleep include removing electronic devices from the bedroom and stopping their use one to two hours before lying down. The earlier the better.

Blue-light-blocking glasses might help reduce eye strain.

If you look at a person watching TV or playing a video game, their eyes don’t move a lot. Normally, we blink our eyes about 15 times a minute, but when looking at digital devices, we blink about a third to half as much. This causes our eyes to feel dry and tired and puts a strain on them.

Digital eye strain, also called computer vision syndrome, refers to eye discomfort and vision problems that occur after prolonged use of electronic devices. Jacquot estimates that about 65 percent of people experience symptoms of digital eye strain. He said that this condition is multifactorial with blue light, the reduced blink rate, and extended viewing of screens without breaks all playing a role.

In his experience, Jacquot has found that patients who use blue-light-blocking glasses subjectively feel that their eyes are more comfortable and less fatigued. A recent study, however, failed to show that blue-light-blocking glasses help with symptoms of digital eye strain. Instead, it could be the constant focus on a screen that causes the strain, Garg said.

If you’re trying to reduce eye strain, try sitting at least 25 inches from your computer screen and follow the 20-20-20 rule: every 20 minutes, look 20 feet away for about 20 seconds. Also, use artificial tears when your eyes feel dry. By breaking the constant attention on the screen, the eyes will feel less strained and more lubricated.

Blue light may not help you sleep, but it probably won’t cause serious eye diseases, either.

While some have suggested a possible link between blue light and macular degeneration, Garg said that “there have been no studies that have shown that blue light causes a problem in people.”

Garg also explained that much of the blue light that we are exposed to on a daily basis is filtered from the cornea and the lens, so the amount that hits the retina is not as much as one might think. He said that the limited research that suggests blue light is harmful to eye structures is based on data from “shining bright light to cells in a petri dish or to animals in levels much higher than we would be exposed to going about our daily lives.”

Blue-light-blocking glasses do not have many side effects.

Blue-light-blocking glasses are not known to have negative health side effects and should not affect your day-to-day function. Historically, there may have been a cosmetic concern regarding a yellow-brown hue that sometimes came with these glasses. However, with advances in the manufacturing process, these concerns have waned. Jacquot said that the Blue IQ lenses have a very light beige tint that most people don’t even notice and the Blue IQ Clear lenses are clear.

Blue-light-blocking glasses are different from single-vision and multifocal glasses.

Single vision glasses are designed to correct distance vision while multifocal glasses correct both distance and near vision. Blue-light-blocking glasses typically apply a special pigment or coating to the lenses to block out some amount of blue light.

More research is needed to better understand the long-term risks of blue light and the benefits of blue-light-blocking glasses. While the AAO does not recommend any special eyewear for digital devices at this time, Jacquot “confidently recommends” them given their potential benefits.

Jacquot emphasized the importance of annual eye exams for everyone and said that people should be careful of “self-diagnosing” themselves. Regular visits to the eye doctor can help identify important vision and health problems, such as glaucoma, macular degeneration, diabetes and high blood pressure, many of which develop without any symptoms. The AAO recommends that everyone get a baseline eye exam by age 40 and that people over age 65 get an eye exam regularly, even if they have no eye symptoms.

Amrit K. Kamboj, MD, is an internal medicine resident and member of the ABC News Medical Unit.

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iStock/andresrDR. LINDA DROZDOWICZ

(NEW YORK) -- Happy birthday, even if it’s not today!

Whether you go for traditional candles, sparklers or those tricky ones you can’t blow out, birthday candles are a ubiquitous part of celebrations — something you might’ve been reminded of earlier this week when Sen. Mitt Romney (R-Utah) garnered attention for blowing out the candles on his Twinkie birthday cake one by one. He later said that he blew them out that way because he had a cold.

So could blowing out these celebratory flames make people sick?

A 2017 study published in the Journal of Food Research showed that, after blowing out candles, cake icing had a staggering 1,400 percent more bacteria than icing that had not been blown on.

In 2013, Australia’s National Health and Medical Research Council created strict guidelines for childcare centers when celebrating children’s birthdays.

“To prevent the spread of germs when the child blows out the candles, parents should either provide a separate cupcake, with a candle if they wish, for the birthday child,” the council said.

Some physicians and scientists would argue that keeping kids in a cleanliness bubble is bad for their health because it causes their immune systems to become more sensitive to things that cause allergies, also called the “Hygiene Hypothesis.”

“Transfer of oral bacteria onto birthday cake icing, while it may seem disgusting, is not likely to cause illness in those who eat the cake,” Dr. James Campbell, a physician on the American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Infectious Diseases, told ABC News. “Generally, encouraging families with children who are ill not to attend gatherings like birthday parties is probably wise.”

Campbell also said that there are more effective methods for preventing the spread of infection, including practicing good hand washing habits, covering one’s mouth properly when coughing or sneezing and getting vaccinated for the flu.

“Children are likely exposed to similar levels of other children’s oral flora every day at schools, playgrounds, and other venues,” he said.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention does not have an official stance on birthday candles, but it generally recommends four steps for food safety, including cleaning hands and surfaces properly, separating raw meats from other foods to avoid contamination, cooking foods to their appropriate temperatures and chilling perishable foods promptly.

So, is the tradition worth the risk? We’ll leave it up to you to decide. But either way, enjoy your cake.

Linda Drozdowicz, M.D., is a child and adolescent psychiatry fellow at Yale and member of the ABC News Medical Unit.


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iStock/katleho SeisaDR. LINDA DROZDOWICZ

(NEW YORK) -- “This job is killing me!”

We’ve all said this at least once of frustration, but a new study out of France published in the European Journal of Endocrinology suggests that mentally tiring work may be making people — specifically women — sick. The study was extensive, following more than 75,000 women for 22 years.

Researchers found that women who rated their work as “very mentally tiring” were 21 percent more likely to develop type 2 diabetes over the study period compared to those who rated their work as “little or not mentally tiring.”

This effect was specifically in women who were not overweight to begin with.

Now, this was a correlational study, meaning it doesn’t prove that stressful jobs caused type 2 diabetes but there appears to be some link. The study raises some important questions about women and the stressors in their workplace.

ABC News spoke to Dr. Catherine Harnois, professor of sociology at Wake Forest University in North Carolina. Harnois highlighted some workplace issues that are specific to women, which can intensify their levels of mental strain at work.

“In addition to working in jobs that have low autonomy and may have lower status, prestige or earnings, women are more likely to experience sexual harassment and gender discrimination at work, and are more likely than men to be saddled with familial responsibilities [such as childcare and eldercare] when they get home," she said. "All of these factors and more can take a toll on health.”

Regarding the potential links of mentally tiring work to physical health and diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, she hypothesized that "if you are more tired after work, you might be less likely to exercise, have healthy eating behaviors, and less likely to maintain a healthy social life, which can result in worse health outcomes.”

But another theory is that the work-related stress might put women’s sympathetic nervous systems — responsible for the “fight or flight” response — into overdrive, and also mess with a critical body circuit called the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

When these systems get out of whack, our bodies can be more likely to develop type 2 diabetes by dumping too much cortisol into the body and making us resistant to insulin, the hormone that regulates blood sugar.

Whatever the causes of the trend in this study, women should do what they can to maintain a healthy lifestyle, including eating well, getting adequate sleep and exercising regularly. For more information on preventing type 2 diabetes, you can check out the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Diabetes Prevention Program.

Linda Drozdowicz, M.D., is a fellow in child and adolescent psychiatry at Yale University and a member of the ABC News Medical Unit.


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iStock/scanrail(WASHINGTON) --  The Environmental Protection Agency will ban consumer sales of paint strippers that contain an ingredient that has caused dozens of accidental deaths.

Families of people who have died after inhaling paint strippers that contain methylene chloride and chemical safety advocates have called for the products to be banned because of the risks.

While the rule announced today responds to some of advocates' concerns, it's a step back from a full ban proposed under the Obama administration. The EPA will ban the products from being sold to the public in stores or online but will still allow contractors and other professionals to use it. Critics say that still puts workers at risk of inhaling a dangerous amount of fumes if they're working in an unventilated area.

"This rule answers calls from many affected families to effectively remove these products from retail shelves and retail distribution channels, providing protection for the American public," EPA Assistant Administrator for Chemical Safety Alexandra Dunn said in a statement.

The CDC has described the chemical called methylene chloride as a "highly volatile, colorless, toxic" and said that it is "unlikely" that it can be used safely. A study of deaths from the chemical fumes inhaled while workers were stripping bathtubs found that exposure to the chemical can become toxic after just one hour of using it and the EPA says that the fumes can hurt the nervous system and that long-term exposure has been linked to cancer.

Critics say the rule still doesn't go far enough because it still allows products with methylene chloride to be used by contractors and other professionals. EPA is working on rules that could establish more training requirements and limited access to the products for professionals.

A group that has been campaigning to ban the chemical called Safer Chemicals, Healthy Families, said at least 64 people have died from exposure to methylene chloride since 1980, including workers who were using the products to refinish bathtubs.

The EPA first documented the risks from methylene chloride use in 2014 and proposed in January 2017 that the agency ban the chemical in products intended to remove paint. But later in 2017 the agency reversed course and delayed the rule, leading to criticism from advocacy groups, members of Congress, and families whose loved ones died after inhaling the chemical's fumes.

Several retailers like Lowe's and Home Depot have already pulled the products in response to public petitions.Several retailers like Lowe's and Home Depot have already pulled the products in response to public petitions.

EPA first said it would move forward on a ban last May.

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(PORTLAND) -- After a teenage girl's remains were discovered in Oregon in 1971, her identity remained a Oregon State Police/Facebookmystery for decades.

Investigators worked to identify the girl, who became known as Jane "Annie" Doe, but were unsuccessful.

But thanks to DNA and genetic genealogy, officials have finally discovered who she was -- Anne Marie Lehman.

Now they're determined to learn how she died.

The mystery dates back to August 1971, when Lehman's scattered skeletal remains were found in the woods in Josephine County, Oregon, the Josephine County Sheriff's Office said Thursday.

Investigators exhausted their leads and the case was deemed inactive.

Then in 2004, a deputy made a clay facial reconstruction of the victim, nicknaming her Jane "Annie" Doe, the sheriff's office said. The image was released and leads came in, but the mystery remained unsolved.

In 2016, forensic isotope analysis -- which analyzes hair, teeth and bones to help determine likely geographic origin -- helped narrow down where Jane Doe was likely from and a new forensic drawing was released, the sheriff's office said.

Although she resembled a missing person in Massachusetts, investigators could not make a DNA match.

The break finally came in late 2018 when the DNA Doe Project became involved. The non-profit compares DNA from unidentified John and Jane Does to people who voluntarily submit their DNA to public genetic genealogy databases, the sheriff's office said.

"After weeks of careful analysis and painstaking ancestral research, Jane Annie Doe's family was traced to relatives in England, New Zealand and Canada," the sheriff's office said in a statement.

Lehman's DNA was very degraded, making it difficult to find matches to relatives, the sheriff's office said.

Then in February, DNA Doe Project volunteers told detectives a potential match was found with a sister in Washington state. Authorities reached out to the sister and got a DNA sample from her, confirming Lehman's identity, the sheriff's office said.

Jane Annie Doe was really Anne Marie Lehman -- who happened to be nicknamed Annie by her family, the sheriff's office said.

Anne Lehman, of Aberdeen, Washington, was 16 years old when she disappeared. Investigators believe went missing from Aberdeen in the winter or spring of 1971, the sheriff's office said.

Authorities are still working to determine how Lehman died and ask anyone with information to call the Josephine County Sheriff's Office.

"Some say Annie Lehman was a runaway and others feel she was abducted and traded to a criminal human trafficking organization," the sheriff's office said. "These claims, how she ended up in Josephine County and the cause and manner of her death remain under investigation."
Meanwhile, authorities are praising the work of investigators who they say tirelessly tried to solve the mystery of Jane Annie Doe.

"Forensic genetic genealogy is fast becoming the most powerful new tool for solving cold cases that have resisted all other approaches," the sheriff's office said. "Without the DNA Doe Project orchestrating the effort to bring Annie Marie Lehman home, it may well have taken another 47 years before Annie would be identified and reunited with her family."

The Oregon State Police in a statement said it's "extremely proud of the work performed by our Forensic Anthropologist, Dr. Nici Vance. Dr. Vance’s unwavering dedication and tenacity to helping identify these remains and bring closure to families just like the Lehman’s is inspiring."

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Courtesy Jen Strickler(NEW YORK) -- A group of Girl Scouts in western Ohio fought to put a locker for menstrual hygiene products in their school restrooms, and even used some of the money they made from selling cookies to fund it.

"We never really set out to really change the world with our project, but we knew that it could make a world of a difference to the girls in our school," Reagan, one of the girl scouts involved in the project told ABC News' Good Morning America.

Reagan said that they got the idea because they were not allowed to carry bags around during school and their uniforms didn't have pockets. If students needed feminine hygiene products, they would have to go to the school nurse to pick them up.

The girls teamed up as a troop and wrote a letter to their school's parent-teacher organization, but their initial proposal of having individual lockers in the restrooms was shut down by the school. Eventually, their second proposal of one big locker with individual cubbies was greenlighted last December.

They were able to fund the project in part with proceeds from selling Girl Scout cookies. The girls even helped assemble and install the locker themselves.

Another girl scout, Alexis, said that the project was important to them because it was a way to support their fellow girls.

"This project is important to us because it encourages girls more, and [makes] them feel comfortable at school and confident," she told GMA. "And it's really fun to help out girls in our community."

Reagan added that the response from fellow girls at their school has been overwhelmingly positive.

"Last year, when we started the project, some of the older girls mentioned how much they were trying to sneak around their products, and when we mentioned we were going to put cabinets, the girls were really excited," she said.

The girl scouts, both fifth-graders, wished to only be identified by their first names for privacy reasons. Their troop leader, Jen Strickler, said it was inspirational to see the group of young women "come together and really look to see how to make things better and how to make the world a little bit better in certain ways."

"For me personally, I remember 30 years ago experiencing something similar, so we kind of started talking through what made the most sense" for how these young women could access menstrual hygiene products at school more easily, Strickler said.

She said she hopes the locker will "really make that transition of going from a girl to a young woman that much easier for them."

Reagan said she hopes that "other girls will hear our story and advocate for a change in their school."

"It would be amazing if this became the standard in all schools, and maybe baby steps of something even greater," she said.

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Courtesy DeLauren McKnight(NEW YORK) -- A woman from North Carolina is about to give the gift of life to the man who adopted her when she was an infant.

DeLauren McKnight will soon donate her kidney to her dad, Billy Houze, after tests revealed she was a match for the procedure.

"She told me, 'Daddy, you thought you were saving my life pulling me from foster care but in actuality, you were saving my life so I could save yours later,'" Houze, 64, told ABC News' Good Morning America. "I am extremely proud of her."

Houze, a pastor and father of five, said his kidneys began shutting down in 2016 after he underwent gall bladder surgery. Doctors informed him that he wouldn't live past five years if he didn't receive a kidney transplant.

"And then they told me I would be on the list and it would be seven years before I would possibly get a kidney," Houze said.

Houze's sons were tested but were not matches. But on Feb. 1, McKnight, whom Houze and his wife Karen adopted in 1992, learned that she was a match.

"I never thought I would be a match because I was adopted," McKnight told GMA. "I got the call at work and I wanted him to be the first person that knew. I called and I said, 'Daddy, I have to tell you something. I'm a match.'"

She continued, "He said, 'What are you mad for?' I said, 'No, I'm a match!' He stopped talking and he was crying. I was shaking. It was overwhelming."

McKnight and Houze hope to have the surgery in the next few weeks. McKnight said she is thrilled to be saving her father's life.

"I call him my Superman," she said. "Without him and my mom, I wouldn't have known where I'd be. There's nothing in this world I wouldn't give him so he can enjoy life and be right there beside me."

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DebbiSmirnoff/Getty Images(NEW YORK) -- North Carolina-based poultry producer Butterball, LLC is voluntarily recalling approximately 78,164 pounds of raw ground turkey products that may have been contaminated with Salmonella, according to an announcement Wednesday from the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS).

FSIS, along with several public health partners, discovered the possible contamination while investigating an outbreak of Salmonella illnesses involving five patients in Wisconsin and Minnesota.

Four of the patients lived in the same Wisconsin residence, where officials collected three Butterball ground turkey samples that tested positive for the bacteria.

The Minnesota resident was tested positive for the same strain of Salmonella and also reported eating ground turkey, although the brand is unknown, according to the Wisconsin Department of Health.

According to Butterball’s site, the ground turkey in question has a use- or sell-by date of July 26, 2018, and was shipped to institutional and retail locations nationwide.

“Because these products were packaged nine months ago, it is highly unlikely any of the product will be found in retail stores, but it is possible that consumers may have product in their freezers,” Butterball spokesperson Christa Leupen told ABC News.

Health officials are warning anyone who may have Butterball ground turkey in their freezer to check the date and discard any products that may be included in the recall.

The products subject to recall include:

• 48-oz. plastic-wrapped tray containing “BUTTERBALL everyday Fresh Ground Turkey WITH NATURAL FLAVORING (85% LEAN/15% FAT)” with sell or freeze by date of 7/26/18, lot code 8188, and UPC codes 22655-71555 or 22655-71557 represented on the label.

• 48-oz. plastic-wrapped tray containing “BUTTERBALL everyday Fresh Ground Turkey WITH NATURAL FLAVORING (93% LEAN/7% FAT)” with sell or freeze by date of 7/26/18, lot code 8188 and UPC code 22655-71556 represented on the label.

• 16-oz. plastic-wrapped tray containing “BUTTERBALL everyday Fresh Ground Turkey WITH NATURAL FLAVORING (85% LEAN/15% FAT)” with sell or freeze by date of 7/26/18, lot code 8188 and UPC code 22655-71546 represented on the label.

• 16-oz. plastic-wrapped tray containing “BUTTERBALL everyday Fresh Ground Turkey WITH NATURAL FLAVORING (93% LEAN/7% FAT)” with sell or freeze by date of 7/26/18, lot code 8188 and UPC codes 22655-71547 or 22655-71561 represented on the label

• 48-oz. plastic-wrapped tray containing “Kroger GROUND TURKEY FRESH 85% LEAN – 15% FAT” with sell or freeze by date of 7/26/18, lot code 8188, and UPC code 111141097993 represented on the label.

• 48-oz. plastic-wrapped tray containing “FOOD LION 15% fat ground turkey with natural flavorings” with sell or freeze by date of 7/26/18, lot code 8188 and UPC code 3582609294 represented on the label.

The USDA is calling this a Class I recall, defined on the website as a “health hazard situation where there is a reasonable probability that the use of the product will cause serious, adverse health consequences or death.”

Consumption of food containing Salmonella can cause salmonellosis, one of the most common bacterial foodborne illnesses, with symptoms including diarrhea, abdominal cramps and fever within 12 to 72 hours after eating the contaminated food and lasting four to seven days.

Butterball says that consumers with questions about the recall should call 1-800-288-8372 ext. 4 between 10 a.m. and 7 p.m. ET.

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Axelle/Bauer-Griffin/FilmMagic(NEW YORK) -- Chrissy Teigen took to Twitter Wednesday night to wish her son Miles a "Happy Graduation" after he spent three months wearing a helmet for medical reasons.

In December, the mom of two revealed on social media that Miles, who was 6 months old at the time, needed to wear a helmet to correct his "adorable slightly misshapen head" and was seeing a physiotherapist to help the process along.

Now 9 months old, Miles, whose father is singer John Legend, has ditched the head gear that seemingly corrected the common condition known as plagiocephaly or flat head syndrome.

"Happy helmet-free day, no more helmet!" Teigen can be heard saying in a video shared Wednesday.

such a trooper for 3 months of helmet. happy graduation, Miles!! pic.twitter.com/atOIplfHLg

— christine teigen (@chrissyteigen) March 14, 2019

Flat head syndrome is caused by a baby remaining in the same position for too long. It can often be corrected by having the baby wear a specialty fitted helmet for up to 23 hours a day for four to six months. The condition affects one in four babies, according to Edith Bracho-Sanchez, a board-certified pediatrician and Global Health Fellow at Stanford.

"Incidents [of flat head syndrome] have gone up since we said 'back to sleep,' which we absolutely have to do," Bracho-Sanchez told ABC News' Good Morning America, referring to the recommendation that babies sleep on their backs to reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome.

Bracho-Sanchez said that changing your baby's position in the crib, but still keeping them on their back, is very effective in preventing and treating the plagiocephaly.

The same goes for infants that spend time in a swing or rocker.

"Anything you can do to have them look both ways because their little bones are still so malleable," she explained.

The American Academy of Pediatrics said parents should first try physical therapy to see if a head shape problem will correct without needing a helmet.

After Teigen shared the initial photo of Miles in his helmet, moms and dads began sharing pics of their own little ones wearing their helmets. Teigen's latest post sparked a new thread of babies in helmets with parents captioning that they "can't wait for graduation."

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licsiren/iStock(WASHINGTON) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration put out a new proposal Wednesday for how it will crack down on the "epidemic-level rise in youth e-cigarette use." But some critics say the efforts do not go far enough in preventing young people from vaping.

In a statement from FDA Commissioner Scott Gottlieb released Wednesday, the FDA outlined a comprehensive plan to crack down on youth access to flavored e-cigarettes.

"Evidence shows that youth are especially attracted to flavored e-cigarette products, and that minors are able to access these products from both brick-and-mortar retailers, as well as online, despite federal restrictions on sales to anyone under 18," Gottlieb said in a statement.

"We also continue to be concerned about cigar use among youth — flavored cigars in particular — which our enforcement work shows are also being illegally sold to minors," he added. "With these concerns in mind, today, we’re advancing our policies aimed at preventing youth access to, and appeal of, flavored e-cigarettes and cigars."

Part of the proposal aimed at limiting teen access to e-cigarettes includes measures to keep them in a separate area in brick-and-mortar stores and require third-party, age- and identity-verification services when purchasing them online.

"The most recent data show more than 3.6 million middle and high school students across the country were current (past 30 day) e-cigarette users in 2018," Gottlieb said. "This is a dramatic increase of 1.5 million children since the previous year."

The FDA will also unveil its first television advertisement this summer aimed at educating children about the risks of e-cigarette use, according to Gottlieb.

But Harold Wimmer, president and CEO of the American Lung Association, said the FDA is not doing nearly enough to address the epidemic, pointing to the fact that the FDA is cracking down on flavored tobacco products and not mint and menthol, too.

"FDA’s latest proposal to address the e-cigarette epidemic falls far short of what is needed to end the e-cigarette epidemic," Wimmer said in a statement.

Wimmer called the FDA's efforts "half measures that will not protect our nation’s children from the predatory marketing practices of the tobacco industry."

"Until FDA is willing to take meaningful action by removing all flavored tobacco products, including mint and menthol, from the marketplace, America’s youth remain at high risk for a lifetime of addiction to tobacco products," he added.

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CokaPoka/iStock(NEW YORK) -- It's one of those moments that many moms of two or more kids knows, but can't be explained until you've actually been through it.

It's when your first baby is longer your only baby.

You know, of course, that you will love your second child just as much as you love your first. But there's a sort-of sadness at saying goodbye to the days when it was just you and your little one.

That experience is the reason photos of a mom introducing her toddler son to his new baby sister have been shared more than 50,000 times. The mom in the photos, Ashley Clarke, told "Good Morning America," "I think the picture, along with Jordan's [the photographer] words, perfectly captures the crazy mix of emotions a mom has about adding a new baby to the mix. Being excited for the new baby but also mourning what once was. And praying your first little love doesn't hate you forever for ruining the status quo."

Jordan Burch, the photographer who captured the images, told "GMA" she was initially "taken aback" when she realized how nervous Ashley was for Jackson [her 21-month-old son] to see her with a new baby.

"She was anxious from the minute I got there and when he came in and broke down, I knew it confirmed all her fears. But I also knew -- as a mom of four -- that's they'd all recover quickly."

Clarke explained to "GMA" much of her nervousness came from Jackson being a preemie.

"I struggled emotionally for at least a year as I kind of came to terms with everything," she said. "He's always been the little light that came from all the craziness. And I was so afraid to have Emma [her daughter] when he was only 21 months old. I felt like I was betraying him," she said.

Though Jackson's initial reaction was what his mom feared, the family did indeed recover quickly, as Burch predicted.

She went to a follow up session at the family's home shortly after the initial photos and Jackson gave his sister a hug.

"Now I can't imagine it any other way and I'm so glad they are close in age," Clarke told "GMA." "He's very good with her and she lights up when she sees him. Although he always tells me, 'No more babies. Only Emma.'"

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Maggie Wells(NEW YORK) -- Maggie Wells woke up on New Year’s Day last year with what she described as a “bone-chilling” thought.

The 34-year-old mother of three weighed more than 300 pounds and refused, for the most part, to be in any family photographs. She said she realized at that moment that her kids would not have any photos of her to remember her by.

“I wasn’t afraid I was going to die because of my weight, but I was afraid that just if something happened, my kids would have no pictures to remember me,” Wells told ABC News' Good Morning America. “My son was 6 at the time and I think we had two pictures together.”

"I just woke up on New Year’s Day and that was the first thought that struck me immediately," she said.

Starting on Jan. 1, 2018, Wells changed her diet, cutting out all added sugars and reducing her daily carbohydrate intake. In the first month, she lost 24 pounds.

One year later, Wells has lost 185 pounds. She said she did it all on her own and through diet alone, only recently beginning to add exercise into her daily routine.

“I feel like I’m 15 years younger,” she said. “I don’t know how to describe it other than I feel like a brand new person.”

“I have mental clarity and literally a whole new lease on life,” she said.

Wells, the mother of a 6-year-old daughter, 8-year-old boy and 12-year-old stepson, said she lost the weight by just focusing each morning on the 24 hours ahead of her.

“I didn’t need to focus that I had to lose 200 pounds or even 20 pounds, I would just focus on 24 hours,” she said. “I would tell myself, ‘I only have to get through the next 24 hours. If I want [a specific food or drink] at this time tomorrow, I’ll allow myself to have it.’”

“That mindset is what still keeps me sticking to it,” Wells added.

Wells found success by following the ketogenic diet, a diet focused on eating foods high in fat and low in carbohydrates. She focuses on eating meats, vegetables and eggs in order to keep her diet simple and within her family’s budget.

“I don’t have time to be making substitute breads and all of those things,” said Wells, who works in the real estate industry. “I found that this diet can be done by anybody on any budget.”

As Wells began to lose weight and gain confidence, she became more open about her weight loss journey. She started a Facebook group called “Get It, Girl,” that now has more than 5,000 followers.

On the page, Wells shares her story of weight loss as well as photos showing the reality of her body transformed -- extra skin and all.

“Surgery is not an option for me, financially, so my body isn’t altered,” she said. “People are seeing [the] real deal of this is your body when you lose a lot of weight.”

Wells said the fact that she shares photos of herself on Facebook shows how much she has transformed, both physically and mentally.

“I could have lived the rest of my life being a bystander," she said, "and now I get to be a participant in my life and my children’s lives."

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Davizro/iStock(NEW YORK) -- New York lawmakers are pushing for the power of change to rest in the hands of teenagers.

A new bill currently moving through the state legislature would allow for any teens over 14 to receive certain vaccines without parental approval.

The measure comes as New York is dealing with two of six measles outbreaks that have occurred so far this year, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

In 2018, there were 17 measles outbreaks across the country. The CDC reports that many of the outbreaks that took place in New York and New Jersey during that time "occurred primarily among unvaccinated people in Orthodox Jewish communities."

If the proposed bill is passed, New York will be the latest state to pass such a law, joining others like Oregon, Pennsylvania and South Carolina, which already have similar laws.

New York Assembly member Patricia Fahy, one of the bill's lead sponsors, told ABC News that because of separate budget procedures "it's going to take a couple of weeks" to move forward in the process. She also warned that it might not be easy. "Because there has been such a strong anti-vaccination constituency, this will be an uphill battle," she said.

In a memo explaining their stance on the legislation, the New York chapters of the American Academy of Pediatrics said they "strongly" support it and that sometimes teens have an advantage over their parents with differentiating fact from fiction on the internet.

"In this instance, which is specific to immunization, young people are often more conscious about the misinformation on the internet and can in many cases disagree with parents who have bought into unfounded and dangerous anti-immunization diatribes and pseudo-science," the groups' memo reads. "These young people have a right to protect themselves from diseases that can easily be prevented by immunizations."

Part of the inspiration for the law appears to come from beyond state lines. Fahy told ABC News that 18-year-old Ethan Lindenberger of Ohio was "absolutely" a motivator in the proposal.

Lindenberger spoke in front of Congress on Tuesday, March 5, about how he defied his mother's wishes and got himself vaccinated.

"It was catching that [testimony that] drew our awareness to the issue," Fahy said.

Lindenberger told U.S. Senators that his mother, like many who are against vaccines, believed that the shots cause autism or brain damage, even though there has been substantial scientific evidence to the contrary.

"Over the course of my life, seeds of doubt were planted and questions arose because of the backlash that my mother would receive" when she spoke and posted online about her aversion to vaccinations.

He said that when he went into high school "and began to critically think for myself, I saw that the information in defense of vaccines outweighed the concerns heavily."

Lindenberger started getting his vaccines once he turned 18 because his home state of Ohio does not have a law allowing minors to be vaccinated without parental approval.

The 2019 guidelines put forth by the American Academy of Pediatrics state that the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine should be given when a child is between 12 and 15 months old and then a second dose should be given later on, when they are between 4 and 6 years old. The guidelines also note that the MMR vaccine should be given any time after these ages if the person misses them.

Each person who gets vaccinated contributes to what's known as herd immunity, or the protection of a community from infectious diseases via mass vaccinations. It's a measure that makes vaccines more effective. For measles, herd immunity is achieved when 92 to 95 percent of the population is immunized.

Copyright © 2019, ABC Radio. All rights reserved.



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